and other pertinent publications

Listed below you will find over 500 medical and scientific articles and books used as references to write Are You Positive?.

However, rather than finding these references yourself in a library and then reading the entire article or book, you can read specific, pertinent quotes from these (and other) references by visiting the Alberta Reappraising AIDS Society website. There you will find literally hundreds of quotations from these (and other) references, organized by various topics concerning the HIV tests. A special thanks to David Crowe for his excellent work in compiling these quotes.

And there are a dozen or so very key and recent references that I wanted to make available for you to read immediately as links. They are:


    HIV Tests Cannot Diagnose HIV Infection - by Dr. Etienne de Harven (specialist in pathology, virology and electron microscopy; Emeritus Professor of Pathology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Member of the South African Presidential AIDS Advisory Panel) and Dr. Valendar Turner (Department of Emergency Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia). Drs. dr Harven and Turner reply to several of the numerous fallacies contained in the document entitled “Errors in Celia Farber’s March 2006 article in Harper’s Magazine” (Gallo et al 2006)

    Why the “HIV Tests” Can’t Tell You Whether You Have HIV - Mark Gabrish Conlan interviews Dr. Rodney Richards for Zenger Magazine (2001). Dr. Richards worked for Applied Molecular Genetics (now called Amgen, the world’s largest biotech company) when Amgen and Abbott Laboratories were making the first HIV antibody tests, licensed by Dr. Robert Gallo. Dr. Richards explains that the ELISA and the other “HIV tests” are neither licensed nor marketed as diagnostic tests.

    Testing, Testing...Is a Positive Antibody Test Proof of HIV Infection? - by Dr. Valendar Turner, Department of Emergency Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia. Dr. Turner examines what it means to be tested 'HIV Positive' and concludes that “An antibody test, even if repeated and found positive a thousand times, does not prove the presence of a viral infection."

    The Massive Fraud Behind HIV Tests Jon Rappoport is the author of numerous books, including his 1988 "AIDS, Inc.: Scandal of the Century." In a 2006 article, he responds to the CDC's call for universal HIV testing, saying, "An admission that this whole HIV testing system was (and is) scientifically bankrupt and dangerous would collapse the certainty of the whole AIDS structure."

    HIV diagnosis: a ludicrous case of circular reasoning In a May 2004 article in "The Business" (London), Neville Hodgkinson examines the circular reasoning behind the HIV tests, concluding that "To tell even one person that they are HIV-infected on the grounds that they have antibodies that react with the proteins in these tests is an unwarranted assault."

    The Hidden Face of HIV, Part 1 and The Hidden Face of HIV, Part 2 These two articles were written by investigative journalist Liam Scheff and published in various places in 2005. They take you step-by-step through an analysis of the mechanics, process, and limits (and absolute failures) of the tests."


    Heterosexual Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Northern California: Results from a Ten-Year Study In direct contradiction to the AIDS"experts'" claims that HIV is transmitted through heterosexual intercourse, Dr. Nancy Padian's study - the largest and longest of its kind - found that not one (NOT ONE) of the 175 discordant couples she studied transmitted HIV despite thousands of sexual contacts.

    Abstinence-Only Programs Do Not Reduce HIV Risk - A July 2007 reseearch study published by the British Medical Journal reported that "Dr. Kristen Underhill and colleagues found that ... abstinence-only programs did not appear to reduce HIV risk." In other words, having sex, or not saving sex, makaes no difference when it comes to HIV - which makes sense, since HIV has never been proven to be transmitted heterosexually.


    HIV Treatment Response and Prognosis in Europe and North America in the First Decade of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy A ten-year long study headed by Drs. Egger and May published in the prestigious Lancet Magazine in August of 2006 found that the most recent HAART drugs are even worse than the ones introduced in 1996, creating a decrease in CD4 cell counts in recent years – which indicates the immune system is getting worse after taking the drugs. The study also found that the rate of progression into AIDS is faster now than it was 10 years ago for people starting on HAART, and more HIV-Positives are developing AIDS while on HAART than they used to. The study also proves that there has been no decrease in the last ten years of HIV-Positives who die while taking HAART.

    Anti-Retro Drugs Fail to Increase HIV Patients' Lifespan Neville Hodgkinson, in a September 2006 article in "The Business," closely examines the Lancet study, which included over 22,000 HIV-Positive patients. He notes that "there was no decrease in overall death rates," depspite all the hype from the AIDS "experts" about HAART drugs.

    Grade 4 Events Are as Important as AIDS Events in the Era of HAART In a study published in the Journal for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (December 2003), Dr. Reisler (et al) admitted that more HIV-Positives are dying from the side-effects of the HAART medications than from any HIV/AIDS-related illness, mostly from liver failure. This startling fact was first announced at the 2002 International AIDS Conference in Barcelona, Spain, so the AIDS "experts" have known about this for more than 5 years without telling anyone.

    Are we prescribing HIV drugs properly? - A November 2006 article in the New Scientist, stating "The new findings call into question just how much we understand about CD4 cells and their interaction with HIV."


    HIV infection theory challenged - A June 2007 article by the BBC reported on a new study that concluded, "Our new interdisciplinary research has thrown serious doubt on one popular theory of how HIV affects these T-cells."

    Predictive Value of Plasma HIV RNA Level on Rate of CD4 Cell Decline in Untreated HIV Infection This study, by Dr. Rodriguez (et al) published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (September 2006) shows that viral load measurements failed in 90% of the cases in predicting the loss of CD4 cells, which HIV is supposed to destroy. In fact, viral load tests were only able to predict "progression to disease" in 4% to 6% of the HIV-Positives studied. This study proves that there must be "nonvirological mechanisms as the predominant cause of CD4 cell loss." In other words, HIV cannot be the cause of immune deficiency and therefore a viral load test is a totally useless indicator of whether someone will get AIDS.

    Explaining, Predicting, and Treating HIV-Associated CD4 Cell Loss Drs. Henry, Tebas, and Lane analyze Dr. Rodriguez' study in that same issue of JAMA and conclude that viral load results should not be used by themselves to begin antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

Now, here is the list of references for Are You Positive?, in alphabetical order, and then chronological order for multiple listings by the same author....


|> Aaronson, S.A., et al., "Induction of murine C-type viruses from clonal lines of virus-free BALB/3T3 cells" Science 174 (1971), pp. 157-159

|> Abbott Laboratories, "Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1. HIVAB HIV-1 EIA, 66-8805/R5" Abbott Laboratories January 1997

|> Agbalika, F., et al., "False-positive antigens related to emergence of a 25-30 kD protein detected in organ recipients" AIDS 6 (1992), pp. 959-962

|> Amiesen, J.C., et al., "Cell dysfunction and depletion in AIDS: the programmed cell death hypothesis" Immunol. Today 12 (1991), pp. 102-105

|> Anonymous, “Defending the Indefensible Dr. Gallo” Chicago Tribune (January 6, 1995)

|> Andrade, V., et al., "Leprosy as a cause of false-positive results in serological assays for the detection of antibodies to HIV-1" Intl. J. Leprosy 59 (1991), p. 125

|> Armstrong, J.A., et al., "Follicular Dendritic Cells and Virus-Like Particles in AIDS-Related Lymphadenopathy" Lancet II (1984), pp. 370-372

|> Arnold, N.L., et al., "Donor follow up of influenza vaccine-related multiple viral enzyme immunoassay reactivity" Vox Sanguinis 67 (1994), p. 191

|> Arya, S.K., et al., "Homology of Genome of AIDS-Associated Virus with Genomes of Human T-cell Leukemia Viruses" Science 225 (1984), pp. 927-930

|> Ascher, D., et al., "Determination of the etiology of seroreversals in HIV testing by antibody fingerprinting" AIDS 6 (1993), p. 241


|>Bacellar, A., et al., "Temporal trends in the incidence of HIV-1 related neurological diseases: Multicenter AIDS cohort study" Neurology 44 (1994), pp. 1892-1900

|> Bach, M.A., et al., "Monoclonal Anti-actin Antibody Recognizes a Surface Molecule on Normal and Transformed Human B Lymphocytes:Expression Varies with Phase of Cell Cycle" Cell. Immunol. 98 (1986), pp. 364-374

|> Bader, J.P., et al., "Reproduction of RNA Tumor Viruses" Comprehensive Virology Vol.4 (1975), pp. 253-331

|> Banki, K., et al., "Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-related endogenous sequence, HRES-1 encodes a 28-kDa protein:A possible autoantigen for HTLV-I gag-reactive autoantibodies" Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89 (1992), pp. 1939-1943

|> Barnes, D., "New questions about AIDS test accuracy" Science 238 (1987), pp. 884-885

|> Barbacid, M., et al., "Humans have antibodies capable of recognizing oncoviral glycoproteins: Demonstration that these antibodies are formed in response to cellular modification of glycoproteins rather than as consequence of exposure to virus" Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 77 (1980), pp. 1617-1621

|> Barre-Sinoussi, F., et al., "Isolation of a T-Lymphotrophic Retrovirus from a patient at Risk for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)" Science 220 (1983), pp. 868-871

|> Barre-Sinoussi, F., "HIV as the cause of AIDS" Lancet 348 (1996), pp. 31-35

|> Bayliss, G.J., et al., "Isolation of HIV-1 from small volumes of heparinized whole blood" AIDS 3 (1989), pp. 45-49

|> Beaton, D.B., "Effects of Stress and Psychological Disorders on the Immune System" Rochester Institute of Technology (2003)

|> Becker, J.L., et al., "Infection of insect lines by HIV, agent of AIDS, and evidence for HIV proviral DNA in insects from Central Africa" C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris. 300 (1986), pp. 303-306

|> Beneviste, R.E., et al., "Screening for antibodies to LAV/HTLV-III in recipients of immunoglobulin preparations" Lancet I (1986), pp. 1090-1092

|> Benson, H., "The Nocebo Effect: History and Physiology" Preventive Medicine 26 (1997), pp. 612-615

|> Bess, J.W., et al., "Microvesicles are a Source of Contaminating Cellular Proteins Found in Purified HIV-1 Preparations" Virology 230 (1997), pp. 134-144

|> Bialy, H., "Where is the virus? and where is the press?" Bio/Technology 6 (1988), p. 121

|> Biggar, R., et al., "ELISA HTLV retrovirus antibody reactivity associated with malaria and immune complexes in healthy Africans" Lancet. II (1985), pp. 520-543

|> Binik, Y ., "Psychosocial Predictors of Sudden Death: A Review and Critique" Social Science Medicine 20(7) (1985), pp. 667-80

|> Blanton, M., et al., "HLA antibodies in blood donors with reactive screening tests for antibody to the immunodeficiency virus" Transfusion. 27(1) (1987), p. 118

|> Blomberg, J., et al., "Identification of regions of HIV-1 p24 reactive with sera which give "indeterminate" results in electrophoretic immunoblots with the help of long synthetic peptides" AIDS Res. Hum. Retro. 6 (1990), p. 1363

|> Blomberg, J., et al., "A survey of synthetic HIV-1 peptides with natural and chimeric sequences for differential reactivity with Zimbabwean, Tanzanian and Swedish HIV-1-positive sera" AIDS 7 (1993), pp. 759-767

|> Boffey, P ., "Researchers List Odds of Getting AIDS in Heterosexual Intercourse" New York Times (April 22, 1988)

|> Bolton, V., et al., "Unique p24 Epitope Marker To Identify Multiple Human Immunodeficiency Virus Variants in Blood from the Same Individuals" J. Clin. Microbiol. 25 (1987), pp. 1411-1415

|> Bonara, P., et al., "Anti-Lymphocyte Antibodies and Progression of Disease in HIV Infected Patients" Abstracts VII International Conference on AIDS Vol. II (1991), p. 149

|> Bootman, J.S., et al., "An international collaborative study to assess a set of reference reagents for HIV-1 PCR" J. Vir. Meth. 5 (1992), p. 872

|> Boue, F., et al., "Lupus anticoagulant and HIV infection:a prospective study" AIDS 4 (1990), pp. 467-471

|> Boulerice, F., et al., "High Frequency of Isolation of Defective Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Heterogeneity of Viral Gene Expression in Clones of Infected U-937 Cells" J. Virol. 64 (1990), pp. 1745-1755

|> Bourinbaiar, A.S., et al., "HIV and GAG" Nature 349 (1991), p. 111

|> Boussin, F., et al., "Isolation of HIV in a Seronegative Demented Patient Without Symptoms of Immune Deficiency" Cancer Detect. Prev. 12 (1988), pp. 257-265

|> Brennan, J.K., et al., "Isolation of Variant Lymphoma Cells with Reduced Growth Requirements for Extracellular Calcium and Magnesium and Enhanced Oncogenicity" Blood 47 (1976), pp. 447-459

|> British Broadcasting Corporation, "Guinea Pig Kids" BBC Two (November 30, 2004)

|> Brown, P., "The strains of the HIV war" New Scientist (May, 1991), pp. 14-15

|> Buchbinder, S., et al., "Long Term HIV 1 Infection Without Immunologic Progression" AIDS 8 (1994), p. 1123

|> Buianouckas, F.R., "HEAL’s Alternative AIDS Test: A Practical Alternative to T-Cell and Antibody Tests" HEAL (Health Education AIDS Liaison) Comprehensive Packet (1993)

|> Buianouckas, F.R., "HIV an Illusion" Nature 375 (1995), p. 197

|> Burgher, H., et al., "Transient Antibody to Lymphadenopathy-Associated/Human T-Lymphotrophic Virus Type III and T-Lymphocyte Abnormalities in the Wife of a Man who Developed the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome" Ann. Int. Med. 103 (1985), pp. 545-547

|> Burinsky, K.I., et al., "Reactivity to gag- and env-related sequences in immunoblot assay is not necessarily indicative of HIV infection" AIDS 2 (1988), pp. 405-406

|> Burke, D.S., et al., "Measurement of the false positive rate in a screening program for human immunodeficiency virus infections" NEJM 319 (1988), pp. 961-964

|> Burke, D.S., "Laboratory Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection" Clin. Lab. Med. 9 (1989), pp. 369-392

|> Burkhardt U., et al., "Comparison of two commercially available anti-HIV ELISA's: Abbott HTLV-III ELA and DuPont HTLV-III ELISA" J. Med. Vir. 23 (1987), p. 217

|> Busch, M.P., et al., "Poor sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of detection of HIV-1 DNA in serum by polymerase chain reaction" J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 5(9) (1992), pp. 872-877

|> Bylund, D., et al., "Review of testing for human immunodeficiency virus" Clin. Lab. Med. 12 (1992), pp. 305-333


|> Caceres, C.F., "Male homosexual transmission of HIV-1" AIDS 8 (1994), pp. 1051-1061

|> Calabrese, L.H., "Autoimmune Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection" Clin. Lab. Med. 8 (1988), pp. 269-279

|> Calabrese, L.H., "The rheumatic manifestations of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus" Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 18 (1989), pp. 225-239

|> Callen, M., "Surviving AIDS" Harper-Collins Publishing (1991)

|> Campinha-Bacote, J., "Voodoo Illness" Perspectives in Psychiatric Care 28(1) (1992), pp. 11-17

|> Cannon, W., "Voodoo Death" Psychosomatic Medicine 19 (1957), pp. 182-190

|> Cao, Y., "Virologic and immunologic characterization of long-term survivors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection" NEJM 332 (1995), pp. 201-208

|> Cecchi, R., "Stress: Prodrome to Immune Deficiency"Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 437 (1984), pp. 286-289

|> Centers for Disease Control, "Revision of the CDC Surveillance Case Definition for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome" JAMA 258 (1987), pp. 1143-1145

|> Centers for Disease Control, "Interpretation and Use of the Western Blot Assay for Serodiagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infections" MMWR 38 No. S-7 (1989), pp. 1-7

|> Centers for Disease Control, "Revised Classification System for HIV Infection & Expanded Surveillance Case Definition for AIDS Among Adolescents & Adults" MMWR 41 (1992), pp. 1-19

|> Chaitow, L., et al., "You Don't Have to Die: Unraveling the AIDS Myth" Future Medicine Publishing (1997)

|> Challakere, K., et al., "False-positive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ELISA results in low-risk subjects" West. J. Med. 159(2) (1993), pp. 214-215

|> Chamberland, M., et al., "Epidemiology of heterosexually acquired AIDS-United States" New York City AIDS Surveillance Report, IV International AIDS Conference (January-March 1992), p. 264

|> Charmot, G., et al., "HIV infection and malaria" Revue du practicien. 40 (1990), p. 2141

|> Chassagne, J., et al., "Detection of the Lymphadenopathy-Associated Virus p18 in cells of patients with Lymphoid Diseases using a Monoclonal Antibody" Ann. Inst. Pasteur/Immunol. 137D (1986), pp. 403-408

|> Chiodi, F., et al., "Isolation Frequency of Human Immunodeficiency Virus from Cerebrospinal Fluid and Blood of Patients with Varying Severity of HIV Infection" AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 4 (1988), pp. 351-358

|> Christie, H., et al., "Wake the Law: Damaging, Non-Specific HIV Testing at the Hands of the Medical Industry Must Soon Prompt Large Finantial Compensation for 'the Diagnosed' - It’s Time to Sue! " Continuum 5(3) (1998), pp. 28-29

|> Ciampolillo, A., et al., "Retrovirus-like Sequences in Graves' Disease:Implications for Human Autoimmunity" Lancet I (1989), pp. 1096-1100

|> Cohen, J., "Gallo Guilty of Misconduct" Science 259 (1993), pp. 168-170

|> Cohen, S., "Voodoo Death, the Stress Response, and AIDS" Advanced Biochem. Psychopharmacology 44 (1988), pp. 95-109

|> Conley, C.L., et al., "Biologic False-Positive Serologic Tests for Syphilis and Other Serologic Abnormalities in Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia and Thromobocytopenic Purpura" Medicine 68 (1989), pp. 67-84

|> Conley, L.J., et al., "Transmission of AIDS from blood screened negative for antibody to the human immunodeficiency virus" NEJM 326 (1992), p. 1499

|> Cordes, R., et al., "Pitfalls in HIV testing" Postgraduate Medicine 98 (1995), p. 177

|> Coste, J., et al., "Comparative evaluation of three assays for the quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma" J. Med. Virol. 50 (1996), pp. 293-302

|> Courouce, A., et al., "False-Positive Western Blot Reactions to Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Blood Donors" Lancet II (1986), pp. 921-922

|> Crewdson, J., “Virus from AIDS Lab Sold, Probe Suggests” Chicago Tribune (April 29, 1990)

|> Crewdson, J., “House critique triggers another Gallo inquiry” Chicago Tribune (June 14, 1992)

|> Crewdson, J., “Ex-Gallo Aide Guilty of Pocketing $25,000” Chicago Tribune (July 8, 1992)

|> Crewdson, J., “Burden of Proof: Gallo Case Spotlights a Key Question: Can U.S. Science Be Believed?” Chicago Tribune (December 6, 1992)

|> Crewdson, J., “In Gallo Case, Truth Termed a Casualty” Chicago Tribune (January 1, 1995)

|> Crewdson, J., "Science Fictions: A Scientific Mystery, a Massive Cover-up and the Dark Legacy of Robert Gallo" Back Bay Books (2003)

|> Culliton, B.J., “NIH goes 'extra mile' on Gallo” Science 247 (1990) p. 908

|> Culliton, B.J., “Inside the Gallo Probe” Science 248 (1990) pp. 1494-1498

|> Culliton, B.J., “Dingell: Aids researcher in conflict” Science 248 (1990) pp. 676-677

|> Culliton, B.J., “Inside the Gallo probe” Science 248 (1990) pp. 1494-1498

|> Culliton, B.J., “Gallo inquiry takes puzzling new turn” Science 250 (1990) pp. 202-203

|> Culliton, B.J., “Gallo Reports Mystery Break-in” Science 250 (1990) p. 502

|> Culliton, B.J., "The mysterious virus called 'isn't'" Nature 358 (1992), p. 619

|> Cunningham, A.L., et al., "Structure and function of HIV" Med. J. Aust. 164 (1996), pp. 161-173

|> Curran, J ., "The Epidemiology of AIDS: Current Status and Future Prospects " Science 229 (1985), pp. 1352-1357


|> Daar, E.S., et al., "Diagnosis of primary HIV-1 infection" Ann. Intern. Med. 134(1) (2001), pp. 25-29

|> Dalakas, M.C., et al., "Mitochondrial Myopathy caused by long-term Zidovudine therapy" NEJM 322 (1990), pp. 1098-1105

|> Damsky, C.H., et al., "Is there a role for Actin in Virus Budding?" J. Cell. Biol. 75 (1977), pp. 593-605

|> DeCock, K.M., et al., "AIDS surveillance in Africa:a reappraisal of case definitions" BMJ 303 (1991), pp. 1185-1189

|> DeHarven, E., "Pioneer Deplores HIV: Maintaining Errors is Evil"" Continuum 5(2) (1997/8), p. 24

|> DeHarven, E., "Retroviruses: the recollections of an electron microscopist" Reappraising AIDS 6(11) (1998), pp. 4-7

|> DeHarven, E., "Remarks on Methods for Retroviral Isolation" Continuum 5(3) (1998), pp. 20-21

|> Defer, C., et al., "Multicentre quality control of polymerase chain reaction for detection of HIV DNA" AIDS 6 (1992), pp. 659-663

|> Delord, B., et al., "HIV-1 expression in 25 infected patients:A comparison of RNA PCR, p24 EIA in Plasma and in situ Hybridization in mononuclear cells" Abstracts VII International Conference on AIDS Vol. 1 (1991), p. 113

|> Dewar, R.I., et al., "Application of Branched DNA Signal Amplification to Monitor Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Burden in Human Plasma" J. Inf. Dis. 170 (1994), pp. 1172-1179

|> Dingell, Rep. J., Chairman, "Institutional Response To The Hiv Blood Test Patent Dispute And Related Matters" Staff Report of the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations Committee on Energy and Commerce United States House of Representatives (1994)

|> Dock, N., et al., "Evaluation of atypical human immunodeficiency virus immunoblot reactivity in blood donors" Transfusion 28 (1988), p. 142

|> Doolittle, R.F., et al., "Origins and Evolutionary Relationships of Retroviruses" Quart. Rev. Biol. 64 (1989), pp. 1-30

|> Dourmashkin, R.R., et al., "The presence of budding virus-like particles in human lymphoid cells used for HIV cultivation" Abstracts VII International Conference on AIDS Vol. I (1991), p. 122

|> Duesberg, P., "AIDS acquired by drug consumption and other non contagious risk factors" Pharmac. Ther. 12. 55 (1992), pp. 201-277

|> Duesberg, P., "The HIV gap in national AIDS statistics" Bio/Technolpgy 11 (1993), pp. 955-6

|> Duesberg, P., et al., "The Drug-AIDS Hypothesis" Continuum 4(5) (1997), pp. S1-S24

|> Duesberg, P., et al., "The AIDS dilemma: drug diseases blamed on a passenger virus" Genetica; 104(2) (1998), pp. 85-132

|> Dummer, J.S., et al., "Infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the Pittsburgh Transplant Population" Transplantation 47 (1989), pp. 134-139


|> Editorial, "HIV Positive ? It Depends Where You Live. Take a Look at the Criteria that Determine a Positive HIV Test Result" Continuum 3(4) (1995), p. 20

|> Edwards, V.M., et al., "Reproducibility in Quality Control of Protein (Western) Immunoblot Assay for Antibodies to Human Immunodeficiency Virus" Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 91 (1991), pp. 75-78

|> Ehrnst, A., et al., "Efficient Isolation of HIV From Plasma During Different Stages of HIV Infection" J. Med. Virol. 26 (1988), pp. 23-32

|> Epitope Organon Teknika, "Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1): HIV-1 Western Blot Kit PN201-3039" Revision Number 6

|> Essex, M., et al., "Antibodies to Cell Membrane Antigens Associated with Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus in Patients with AIDS" Science 220 (1983), pp. 859-862

|> European Collaborative Study, "Children born to women with HIV-1 infection:natural history and risk of transmission" Lancet 337 (1991), pp. 253-260

|> Esteva, M., et al., "False positive results for antibody to HIV in two men with systemic lupus erythematosus" Ann. Rheum. Dis. 51 (1992), pp. 1071-1073

|> Evans, A.S., "Viral Infections of Humans, Epidemiology and Control" Plenum Publishing Corporation (1989)

|> Ezekowitz, R.A., et al., "Uptake of Pneumocystis carinni mediated by the macrophage mannose receptor" Nature 351 (1991), pp. 155-158


|> Farber, C., "The HIV Tests: AIDS; Words from the Front" Spin (Nov 1993)

|> Farber, C., "How Accurate is the HIV Test?" Mothering (Sep/Oct 1998)

|> Farber, C., "Positively Flawed: Welcome to the Machine" Impression (June 1999)

|> Farzadegan, H., et al., "Loss of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Antibodies with Evidence of Viral Infection in Asymptomatic Homosexual Men" Ann. Int. Med. 108 (1988), pp. 785-790

|> Fassbinder, W., et al., "Prevalence of antibodies against LAV/HTLV-III [HIV] in patients with terminal renal insufficiency treated with hemodialysis and following renal transplantation" Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 111 (1986), p. 1087

|> Fauci, A.S., "Immunopathogenesis of HIV Infection" J. Acq. Immunodeficiency Syndromes 6 (1993), pp. 655-662

|> Feinberg, M.A., et al., "Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus" The AIDS Knowledge Base (1994), Section 2

|> Fiore, J.R., et al., "Cell cultures from small amounts of heparinized whole blood enhance HIV-1 isolation rate" AIDS 4 (1990), pp. 1295-1296

|> Fleming, D., et al., "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in low-incidence areas" JAMA 258(6) (1987), p. 785

|> Franchi, F., "In Search of HIV: Analysis of the Value of the Tests Used for 'HIV Infection'" Leadership Medica (Sep 1998)

|> Fraziano, M., "Epitope specificity of anit-HIV antibodies in human and murine autoimmune diseases" AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 12 (1996), pp. 491-496


|> Gallagher, R.E., et al., "Type C RNA Tumor Virus Isolated from Cultured Human Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Cells" Science 187 (1975), pp. 350-353

|> Gallo, R.C., et al., "On the nature of the Nucleic Acids and RNA Dependent DNA Polymerase from RNA Tumor Viruses and Human Cells" Possible Episomes in Eukaryotes (1973), pp. 13-34

|> Gallo, R.C., et al., "Some Evidence For Infectious Type-C Virus in Humans" Animal Virology (1976), pp. 385-407

|> Gallo, R.C., et al., "Frequent Detection and Isolation of Cytopathic Retro- viruses (HTLV-II) from Patients with AIDS and at Risk for AIDS" Science 224 (1984), pp. 500-502

|> Gallo, R.C., et al., "The Etiology of AIDS" AIDS Etiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention (1985), pp. 31-51

|> Gallo, R.C., et al., "Serological detection of antibodies to HTLV-III in sera of patients with AIDS and pre-AIDS conditions " U.S. Patent #4,520,113 (May 28, 1985)

|> Gallo, R.C., et al., "First isolation of HTLV-III" Nature 321 (1986), p. 119

|> Gallo, R.C., et al., "HIV/HTLV gene nomenclature" Nature 333 (1988), p. 504

|> Garry, R.F., et al., "Detection of a Human Intracisternal A-Type Retroviral Particle Antigenically Related to HIV" Science 250 (1990), pp. 1127-1129

|> Gendelman, H.E., et al., "Efficient Isolation and Propagation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus on Recombinant Colony-Stimulating Factor 1-Treated Monocytes" J. Exp. Med. 167 (1988), pp. 1428-1441

|> Gelderblom, H.R., et al., "Loss of envelope antigens of HTLV-III/LAV, a factor in AIDS pathogenesis?" Lancet II (1985), pp. 1016-1017

|> Gelderblom, H.R., et al., "Fine Structure of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Immunolocalization of Structural Proteins" Virol. 156 (1987), pp. 171-176

|> Gelderblom, H.R., et al., "MHC-Antigens:Constituents of the Envelopes of Human and Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses" Z. Naturforsch. 42C (1987), pp. 1328-1334

|> Gelderblom, H.R., et al., "Fine Structure of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV),Immunolocalization of Structural Proteins and Virus-Cell Relation" Micron Microsc. 19 (1988), pp. 41-60

|> Genesca, J., "What do Western Blot indeterminate patterns for Human Immunodeficiency Virus mean in EIA-negative blood donors?" Lancet II (1989), pp. 1023-1025

|> Gerberding, J.L., "Incidence and prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B virus, and cytomegalovirus among health care personnel at risk for blood exposure" J. Infect. Dis. 170 (1994), pp. 1410-1417

|> Germanson, T., "Screening for HIV: Can we afford the confusion of the false positive rate?" J. Clin. Epi. 42 (1989), pp. 1235-1237

|> Gilbert, P.B., et al., "Virologic and regimen termination surrogate end points in AIDS clinical trials" JAMA 285 (1989), pp. 777-784

|> Gilks, C., "What use is a clinical case definition for AIDS in Africa?" BMJ 303 (1991), pp. 1189-90

|> Gill, M.J., et al., "Five cases of erroneously diagnosed HIV infection" Can. Med. Asso. J. 145(12) (1991), p. 1593

|> Giraldo, R., "AIDS and Stressors" Impresos Begón (1997)

|> Giraldo, R., "Milking the Market: Will Mothers Dish Out the W.H.O. Formula?" Continuum 5(4) (1998), pp. 8-10

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